Category Archives: Uncategorized

September 26, 2011. 66th UN General Assembly [the UN World Rehabilitation Organization] speech.

With all due respect, governments around the world, including United Nations and world peace, human rights organizations, everyone involved.

September 26, 2011 and Article 66 of the UN General Assembly decision-making and the role of the universal values of humanity through the [World Disabled Universal Declaration of Human Rights] that is based on the UN Convention on the Rights of the disabled in accordance with, [World Rehabilitation Organization (WRO_23YRS)] is has been formally adopted by the organizations of the UN to declare officially digits.

To this declaration, because, among a diversified international political framework, based on human rights by creating the world’s history to go along with the [World Declaration of Human Rights for Disabled] were on the noble call.

This call around the world, the world’s underprivileged and disabled people to feel responsible for all of us aware of the infinite transform the meaning of to believe.

This recognition is based on the transition of world peace and world peace for disability rights by means of human rights organizations, [World Rehabilitation Organization (WRO_23YRS)] the August 27, 2011 at 7:00 pm has been listed officially as a member of the United Nations through the received the courtesy notice.

Today, the 66th UN General Assembly to vote, [World Rehabilitation Organization (WRO_23YRS)] as the formal organizations of the UN system by becoming an official declaration, the [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] under the United Nations Organization as a member of the organization will comply with the UN Charter.

In addition, the underprivileged and disabled people around the world seems real humanity, universal values of life to them, so that it can be executed every effort will be to race.

The [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] of these human dignity and to enjoy equal rights and also human beings live together in harmony to the world community wants.

Now, the [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] as a realistic and feasible method of underprivileged and disabled people around the world for human rights can be created so that hope is to provide direction.

Initially, the [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] in order to secure the financial indigenous’ financial soundness of the secure financial program for the future development must take precedence.

The [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] is a welfare-oriented economic welfare of the implied definition of the concept rather than a mere consumable distribution re-investment cycle of growth and the possible economic welfare can be realized over conventional welfare system to provide a revolution is.

In the major industrialized countries have already ‘welfare economy’ that is the basis for the [Rehabilitation Science] has highlighted the importance of early.

Real-life example, a robot instead of human hands and feet, deep-sea submarine • Unmanned space probes • Video • Computer • voice recognition devices, such as the U.S. Space Science and acquisition of developed countries in the creation of Silicon Valley for part of the Rehabilitation Science (RS) sector resulting from the disability is the result of the convenience.

As a result, the human race through the training of rehabilitation science and technology for the future, as well as the field of space exploration and astronomical system, and promote the welfare of disabled people and the world a more specific disability policy, the world was able to.

The [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] in the world of people with disabilities and welfare of the world’s human rights on the implementation of the new world economy and welfare practices to economic theory suggests six steps.

[Step 1] For the future of mankind the [world’s human rights of disabled people and the world’s people with disabilities] to transform the requirements for a new consciousness of the revolutionary era that is the situation.

[Step 2] the science of the twenty-first century is the era of state-of-the-art rehabilitation sciences industry. Rehabilitation Science for humanity to fulfillment on a global level should be oriented to the common ideals of the line.

[Step 3] of the underprivileged around the world and the world’s human rights and disability rehabilitation science (RS) is generated from industry, combined with the world economy and welfare of international agreements on global welfare economics project will evolve.

[Step 4] around the world agenda, as the backbone of industrial economy of the country, and rehabilitation sciences industry, which is derived from the state-of-the-art in space science and biotechnology 4T [Information Technology (IT) + biotechnology (BT) + environment, and minimal three technologies (NT)], and so linked with the era of global cooperation of the countries around the world to the Silicon Valley-based industries will continue to form.

This way toward the common good of high value-added applications of science and technology in rehabilitation, welfare economics is to create a competitive advantage.

[Step 5] on the world stage, human rights and protect the rights of persons with disabilities through the protection of human dignity and world peace and human welfare by elaborate on the integration will continue.

As a result, the [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] to participate in the Charter of the United Nations for national economies and welfare will be advanced as a country have credibility.

[Step 6] World Bank Rehabilitation (WRB), and 198 countries world-wide in conjunction with the global financial industry, and welfare by upgrading the financial agenda, to operate the world’s smooth integration of finance and welfare in the world economy will continue to build infrastructure.

Earlier international human rights organizations worldwide, including world peace leaders of the world’s leading role in those without it the [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] would have been impossible in the birth.

Human rights groups around the world, including world peace around the world will honor those who the world leaders.

For a long time for world peace and human dignity and continue to spread freedom around the world and the world’s underprivileged with disability to be a bright world expressed deep concern for keeping the U.S. government will honor the dear president, Mr. Barack Obama.

Dear UN Secretary-General, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, including former UN Secretary General, Mr. Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-undersheriff, Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, and Jimmy Carter Foundation and the Nobel Foundation will honor anyone.

The [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization]’s general manager in Korea in order to attract the headquarters, along with South Korea dear President, Mr. Lee Myung-bak closet I salute you.

Especially in the past, Mr. Including George Byron Kerford WAPD Chairman [Mr. Patty Murray, Mrs. Mary L. Landrieu, Mr. Frank H. Murkowski, Mrs. Olympia Snowe, Mr. Orrin G. Hatch, Mr. Russxll D. Feingold, Mr. Herb Kohl, Mr. Jeff Sessions, Mr. Harry Read, Mr. Robert C. Byrd, Mr. Daniel K. Akaka, Mr. Joseph R. Biden.Jr, Mr. John Edwards, Madame. Barbara A. Mikulski, Mr. Paul S. Sarbanes, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Strom Thurmond, Mr. Joe Lieberman, Mr. Sam Brownback] the Senator and Mr. Gary Locke, Mr. James S. Gilmor Ⅲ Governor, and Mr. Member State Colin Powell, who is a big politician Mr. Donald P. Ambassador Gregg deep salute you.

The [United Nations World Rehabilitation Organization] of the United Nations and welfare policies (rehabilitation science and technology in accordance with macro-economic and industrial technology, welfare policy) with respect to the field of Rehabilitation Sciences, American University’s degree programs who try to open the U.S. government’s Committee on Special Education. I salute you, Dr. Jeanine Blanchard.

Yesterday UN Secretary-General in the Far East who sought to discharge, 56 people, President Mr. Bush and former U.S. Senate incumbent Congressman salute you.

In addition, the U.S. government’s Special Education Committee Mr. King, Kelly, Mr. Jaeger, Robert, Mr. Steven James Tingus, M.s, C. Phil. Director of NIDRR (National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research), Chairman of Interagency Committee on Disability Research Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services US department of Education. I salute you.

Thank you very much.

September 18, 2011.

World Rehabilitation Organization (WRO)
Mr. Jung-Sun, Kim.
Chairman of WRO.

Advertisements

Philippines

Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments
Date of Information: 7/22/2011
Pres. Benigno AQUINO III
Vice Pres. Jejomar Cabaiatam BINAY
Executive Sec. Paquito OCHOA, Jr.
Chief of Staff Julia ABAD
Sec. of Agrarian Reform Virgilio DE LOS REYES
Sec. of Agriculture Proceso ALCALA
Sec. of the Budget & Management Florencio ABAD
Sec. of Education, Culture, & Sports Armin LUISTRO, Rev.
Sec. of Energy Jose Rene D. ALMENDRAS
Sec. of Environment & Natural Resources Ramon PAJE
Sec. of Finance Cesar PURISIMA
Sec. of Foreign Affairs Albert DEL ROSARIO
Sec. of Health Enrique ONA, Dr.
Sec. of Interior & Local Govt. Jesse ROBREDO
Sec. of Justice Leila DE LIMA
Sec. of Labor & Employment Rosalinda BALDOZ
Sec. of National Defense Voltaire GAZMIN
Sec. of Public Works & Highways Rogelio L. SINGSON
Sec. of Science & Technology Mario MONTEJO
Sec. of Social Welfare & Development Corazon SOLIMAN
Sec. of Socioeconomic Planning Cayetano PADERANGA
Sec. of Tourism Alberto LIM
Sec. of Trade & Industry Gregory DOMINGO
Sec. of Transportation & Communications Manuel ROXAS II
National Security Adviser Norberto GONZALES
Governor, Central Bank of the Philippines Amando TETANGCO, Jr.
Ambassador to the US Jose CUISIA, Jr.
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Libran N. CABUTULAN

Kingdoms and Monarchs of the World

See also: Current World Leaders

Country Monarch Type of monarchy
Bahrain King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa Constitutional
Belgium King Albert II Constitutional
Brunei Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Constitutional
Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni Constitutional
Denmark Queen Margrethe II Constitutional
Japan Emperor Akihito Constitutional
Jordan King Abdullah II Constitutional
Kuwait Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah Constitutional
Lesotho King Letsie III Constitutional
Liechtenstein Prince Hans Adam II Constitutional
Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri Constitutional
Malaysia King Syed Sirajuddin Constitutional
Monaco Prince Albert II Constitutional
Morocco King Muhammad VI Constitutional
Netherlands Queen Beatrix Constitutional
Norway King Harald V Constitutional
Oman Sultan Qabus ibn Sa’id Absolute
Qatar Emir Sheik Hamad ibn Khalifa al-Thani Constitutional
Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II Constitutional
Saudi Arabia King Abdullah Absolute
Spain King Juan Carlos I Parliamentary
Swaziland King Mswati III Absolute
Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf Constitutional
Thailand King Bhumibol Adulyadej Constitutional
Tonga King George Tupou V Constitutional
United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II1 Constitutional2
1. Queen Elizabeth II is also the Sovereign of 15 countries in the Commonwealth of Nations: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu.
2. Also parliamentary democracy.

Islamic City of Marawi

Landmarks
[[Image:{{{landmarkfile}}}|250px]]
Seal
Location
Government
Region Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Province Lanao del Sur
Mayor Sultan Fahad “Pre” Salic
Barangays 96
Website elgu.ncc.gov.ph/ecommunity/marawicity
Physical characteristics
Area 22.60 km²
Population
Total (2000) 131,090
Density 5,800.4/km²

The Islamic City of Marawi is a 3rd class city in the province of Lanao del Sur, Philippines. It is the capital city of Lanao del Sur. Marawi City is bounded on the west by Marantao and Saguiaran, on the east by Bubong and Ditsaan Ramain, on the north by Kapai and Saguiran, and on the south by Lake Lanao. It has a total land area of 22.6 sq. km.

According to the 2000 census, Marawi City has a population of 131,090 people in 20,375 households. It is politically subdivided into 96 barangays. The economy of Marawi City is largely based on agriculture and exporting.

The mayor of Marawi City is Sultan Fahad “Pre” Salic (elected on May 14, 2007).

Contents

[hide]

[edit] History

The name of Marawi was derived from the Maranao word “rawi” which locally means “reclining” and refers to the lilies that bend northward on the banks of the mouth of the Agus River. Marawi was formerly part of the municipality of Dansalan. The municipality of Dansalan was established under the Moro Province in 1907. In 1940, Dansalan became a chartered city, but was not inaugurated until 1950. In 1956, Dansalan City was renamed Marawi City through a congressional act. In 1980, it was officially renamed the Islamic City of Marawi, with a 90 percent Muslim population. As Lanao del Sur’s capital city, Marawi serves as the province’s commercial, educational, cultural, religious, and political center.

[edit] Geography

Marawi City is bounded on the north by the municipalities of Kapai and Saguiaran, on the south by Lake Lanao, on the east by the municipalities of Bubong and Ditsaan Ramain, and on the west by the municipalities of Marantao and Sauiaran. Rolling hills and valleys and a placid lake dominate the city’s landscape. Due to its high elevation, its weather is cool (in tropical terms) and pleasant, distinguished by an even distribution of rainfall throughout the year.

[edit] Society

Marawi City is predominantly Muslim. Maranao is the most widely spoken dialect and is understood by Muslims and Christians alike. Since Arabic studies came to be widely taught among the city’s students, a great number of the population can read, write and speak Arabic. Also, the majority of schools use English as the medium of instruction.

[edit] Holidays

Maulid En Nabi. The entire Muslim world celebrate the feast, the birthday of Prophet Muhammad . This is movable feast on which the Sultan or Datu of the place is oblige to give for his people. Some of the Maranaos celebrate it ahead of the set day and the rest on the specified date, birthday of Prophet Muhammad .

Ramadan. The Muslims seem eagerly looking forward this 12th month of the year. They believe that they have to spend what they have earned for the rest of 11 months in the whole month of Ramadan. Not only looking for the best foods in town but searching for the best kitchen utencils. Some have been accustomed to buying new equipment and keep the old ones during this month. On the very first night, others called it Pegang, special foods displayed in new beautiful glasswares were being served happily. Some believed that once you begin with the above, surely the following nights will be repetitions. Giving and praying during this month will be rewarded a thousand times than the rest of the months.

Wedding Day. Wedding cost a lot wherein the presence of both the bride and groom’s parents, relatives and friends are necessary. The celebration varies from the class of the family where the couple belongs. Food served and money is divided among the crowd. Festivity started one week before the crowning of the Sultan, Bae and datus. People are invited together in this occasion wherein food is served in abundance. It is therefore the best time for the coronation of the nobility such as Sultan and other Datus.

Morod A Miskin. Is a feast given to the poor of the community. Food is prepared and people are invited including the Sultan to partake the feast.

Morod A Lomalayag. Feast given by travellers or sailors after they have returned from a trip in thanksgiving for their success and safety.

[edit] Ethnic Dances

Kini-kini. A special artistic way of walking of Maranao women, as dramatized in their dances.

Singkil. A world famous dance which has for its basic accompaniment the clapping of two bamboo poles. An interesting footnote to Maranao dances: The women are not allowed to dance with the men

[edit] Commerce and Industry

Most industries in the city are resource-oriented. They include rice and corn mills, hollow-block manufacturing, goldsmithing, and saw milling. Small and cottage-size enterprises are engaged in garment-making, mat and malong weaving, woodcraft, brassware making, and blacksmithing.

[edit] Interesting Destinations

Aga Khan (Mindanao State University, Marawi City). Named in honor of King Aga Khan who contributed to the realization of the museaum. Historical development of the country is bank on the large space upon the conservation of cultural materials. It has huge, collection of indigenous art, displayed ethnic music tape recorded, the native folk dances from different regions of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, the native tools and weapons used by the Muslims and different artistic designs of houses are the main attractions of museum. Indigenous art and cultural material are being diaplayed.

Moncado Colony (Moncado, Cadingilan). Named in honor of Hilario Camino Moncado, a native Filipino, leader, an organizer, author of books and lecturer of humanities. He graduated with honor at the age of nine at India Collage of Mystery and Psychics. Moncado monuments and wild animals monuments can be found here.

Torogans and Sambitory old Building (Amito, Dayawan, Marawi City, Sambitory building, Barrio Naga, Marawi City). The feeling of the unique natural setting of the Maranao in Marawi City is manifested by the presence of many large “Torogans”, an antique royal high roofed with curving designed houses of Maranao.

Beautiful Rolling Hills and Mountains. They are found in Marawi City. Signal hill, Arumpac hill and Mt. Mupo are considered beautiful but mysterious. Angoyao hills served as natural watch over tower to the water of the Lake Lnao. Mt. Mupo is known for its untouched trees, beautiful and perfect cone.

Lake Lanao. Marawi lies in the rolling terrain commanding majestic view of the fascinating Lake Lanao. The largest lake in Mindanao and the deepest in the Philippines. It is one of the 15 ancient lakes of the world.

Bagang Beach (Caloocan, Marawi City). It is located 2 meters away from the commercial site of the city; filled rocks and boulders, trees in the lakeside that served benches and the latter as shades. Besides are floating woods, where the brgy. residents take a bath and ablution. Ideal for picnics, nice place for boating and swimming because of the clear water.

Agus River. Located in between Saduc and Lilod, Marawi City. Swiftest river in the country, its famous cataract is the Maria Cristina Falls, outlet of Lake Lanao to Illana Bay.

Golf Course. Located at the Mindanao State University, Marawi City. A 9 hole course laid out on the gentle greenery of Mindanao State University. Visitors who play golf will enjoy playing at the greenery ground, one can relax and breath the clean country, air and bath under the gentle sun.

Kilometer Zero Point Marker. An important lamdmark in Lanao del Sur, from which all distances in Mindanao are measured. This is similar to the measures of distances in Manila which begin at the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park.

Mindanao State University (MSU). Marawi City draws the most number of visitors within Lanao del Sur in which the MSU is located. Founded in 1961, it serves as an educational institute and a center of social and cultural integration. 11 Dansalan College (DC) Founded by the American Protestants after world war II. It served as the premiere secondary institution of the province and produced some of the best leaders of Lanao del Sur such as the late Gov. Mamintal A. Adiong.

[edit] Travel

Philippine Air Lines and other airlines have daily flights every day from Manila to Cagayan de Oro City. From Cagayan de Oro, there are collective taxis for 4 to 6 passengers who share the fare going to Marawi.

From Cotabato City, the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and Region XII, you can either take a plane for a 30-minute flight or you can go by land. Should you choose to take a plane, it will bring you to Baloi Airport at Baloi, Lanao del Norte. Then take a PUJ (jeepney) to Marawi, about 30-minute ride. If you choose by land, then you have to choose either via Malabang or via Davao – ButuanCagayan de Oro City – Iligan City tri before you finally reach Marawi.

If you want to reach Marawi City by water transportation, from Manila, you can take a ferry direct to Cagayan de Oro City for two days or to Iligan City for two and a half days. Also, from Manila to Cebu City to Iligan then from Cagayan de Oro or Iligan, jeepneys can take you to Marawi City.

Confederation of Sultanates in Lanao

The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520. The Maranaos of Lanao were acquainted with the sultanate system when Islam was introduced to the area by Muslim missionaries and traders from the Middle East, Indian and Malay regions who propagated Islam to Sulu and Maguindanao.

Unlike in Sulu and Maguindanao, the Sultanate system in Lanao was uniquely decentralized. The area was divided into Four Principalities of Lanao or the Pat a Pangampong a Ranao which are composed of a number of royal houses (Sapolo ago Nem a Panoroganan or The Sixteen (16) Royal Houses) with specific territorial jurisdictions within mainland Mindanao. This decentralized structure of royal power in Lanao was adopted by the founders, and maintained up to the present day, in recognition of the shared power and prestige of the ruling clans in the area, emphasizing the values of unity of the nation (kaiisaisa o bangsa), patronage (kaseselai) and fraternity (kapapagaria).

Contents

[hide]

[edit] The Four Principalities

The Four Principalities of Lanao are:

  • Unayan
  • Masiu
  • Bayabao
  • Baloi

[edit] The Present Sultanate System in the Philippines

With a republican form of government, the Philippine Constitution has prohibited the granting of titles of nobility to Filipino citizens. Legally, the state does not recognize the sultanate system, thus disregarding and undermining this important element of the rich cultural heritage of the Moros of Mindanao. Paradoxically, the Philippine Constitution includes as state policy to protect and preserve the culture of the indigenous people of the Philippines.

Nevertheless, the Sultanate system in Lanao has survived colonialism and non-recognition by state authorities. Like the sultanates in present day Sultanate of Brunei, Republic of Indonesia, Federal Government of Malaysia and the Muslim region in the Kingdom of Thailand, sultanates in Mindanao have continued to exist despite its non-recognition and disregard by the Philippine government.

In Lanao region (composed of Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte), the Sultanate system has remained important as an integral part of the Maranao society, symbolizing royal authority, cultural heritage and Islamic influence. At present, Maranaos trace their lineage, legitimacy and authority through their Salsila that has chronicled the origins of the Lanao royal houses.

[edit] History of the Royal Houses

Shariff Bangkaya begot two children from her 3rd wife Bae sa Matampay namely, Dakeneq of Malabang and Shariff Laut Buisan. Sharif Laut Buisan was installed as 6th Sultan of Maguindanao in 1597, and was married to the sister of Sultan Batara Shah Tengah of Sulu. Shariff Laut Buisan begot Gayang and Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat. Gayang was married to the grandson of Dimasangcay Adel — Shariff Matonding, whose children reigned as the Sultans and Bai a Labi of Lanao, while his brother Shariff Muhammad Kudarat was installed as 7th Sultan of Maguindanao in 1619. In 1656, Sultan Kudarat declared a jihad against the Spanish colonialist. His Sultanate was felt as far as Ternate in Indonesia and Borneo, and in fact, its power reached the shores of Bohol, Cebu, Panay, Mindoro and Manila in north.

[edit] Spanish Campaigns in Lanao

(include Maps of Mindanao and Lanao)

In 1637, Sebastean Hurtado-de Curcuera decided to send an expedition to subdue the Datus and the people of Lake Lanao. As early as September 1637, he had promised the lake area to the Jesuits, who would get the same the moment it was conquered.

The conquest of the Maranaos was entrusted to Captain Francesco Atienza, the Alcalde Mayor of Caraga. With fifty Spaniards and give hundred Caragans, the captain landed in Bayug, then proceeded to the Maranao territory, reaching the lake on 4 April 1639. There were about 2,000 families or 800 inhabitants. The Spaniards brought with them six collapsible boats that they fitted out in the lake.

The Datus of Lanao initially offered allegiance to the Spaniards. They promised tribute and accepted the missionaries. What appeared ominous to the Spaniards was the movement of inhabitants into the interior at the same time. The Maranaos could easily muster 6,000 warriors from among the four confederation of Lanao. Lack of firearms though was their disadvantage. Governor Al Monte dispatched Major Pedro Fernandez del Rio with seventy Spaniards and 500 Visayans to join with the forces of Atienza. The expedition had to pass through the area of Butig where Shariff Matonding, who was married to Gayang, a sister of Sultan Kudarat, engaged the colonizers. After a most difficult passage made by the fierce resistance of Shariff Matonding, Pedro del Rio made it to the shores of the lake where he join the forces of Atienza. In the middle of April, Atienza and part of his troops left for Bayug and fortified it with a stockade and sailed for Caraga.

In October of the same year, an additional force of fifty Spaniards and five hundred Boholanos arrived under the command of Captain Pedro Bermudez de Castro who had orders to build a fort in Marawi to establish Spanish sovereignty.

Sultan Kudarat visited his sons-in-law in Lanao — Balindong Bzar and Dianaton Naim of Butig. He gathered the Datus of Lanao and delivered a speech in this form:

What have you done? Do you realize what subjection would reduce you to? A toilsome slavery under the Spaniards! Turn your eyes to the subject nations and look at the misery to which such glorious nation had been reduced to, look at the Tagalog and Visayan: Are you better than they? Do you think that the Spaniards consider you of better stuff? Have you not seen the Spaniards trample them under their feet? Do you not see everyday how they are obliged to work at the oars and the factories with all their rigor? Can you tolerate anyone with little Spanish blood to best you up and grasp the fruits of your labor? Allow your selves to be subjects (today) and tomorrow you will be at the oars? I, at least will be a pilot, the biggest favor they will allow a chief. Do not let their sweet words deceive you; their promises facilities their deceits, which little by little, enable them to control everything. Reflect on how even minor promises as to the chief of other nations were not honored until they become master of them all. See now what is being done to these chief and how they are being led by rod.

The Maranaos took up arms against the newly built fort. They used indigenous means to get at the fort and set it on fire. Three of the Spanish boats, brought from Bayug were captured. Atienza formed a relief expedition and saved the Spaniards. The Maranao warriors after 29 days of siege left their position. Afraid to experience once more the horrors of siege, the Spaniards proceeded to burn their own fort and made a retreat back to Iligan. In 1640, Atienza tried once more to conquer the Maranaos. For the second time, the Spaniards burned the fields and retired to the coast, but not without losing some men on the way due to ambushes. The second attempt to colonize and Christianize the Maranaos had utterly failed. In payment for their freedom however, the Maranaos lost their harvest.

[edit] Birth of the Sultanates in Lanao

In Lanao, the Maranaos started to be acquainted with the sultanate system in the 15th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520, In 1640 Balindong Bzar of Masiu became the first Maranao Chieftain enthroned as Sultan, with specific title as Sultan Diagaborolah. He was charged to enforce the teaching of Islam and the law and order in Lanao. On the same year Sultan Diagaborolah consulted the seven Maranao Datus on how to govern Lanao. They were Dianaton Naim of Butig. Datu Burus of Pagayawan, Datu Ottawa of Ditsaan, Datu Acari of Ramain, Onbaor of Bansaya, Engki-Okoda of Minitepad, Alanake of Baloi. The eight wise men (including Balindong Bzar) agreed to create the four confederation of Lanao (Pat a Pangampong a Ranao) composed of the States of Butig (Unayan), Masiu, Bayabao and Baloi, and on the second level, the 15 Royal houses (Panoroganan) and the 28 legislative body (Mbabaya/Pyakambaya ko Taritib). The socio-political system was based on the Taritib, Ijma, laws, customary laws, and adapted practices of the Maranaos. The Pangampong system was further divided into smaller socio-political units. Within the four states is a total 43 Inged or communities classified into 15 Royal Houses (Panoroganan), and 28 supporting Inged or Legislative Houses called Piyakambaya ko Taritib (Decider of Laws).

The Taritib, an ancient order or law bound together the four states or principalities of Lanao into an alliance or confederation and defined their relationships. There is no central, all powerful authority but every state or principality respected the traditional alliance termed Kangiginawai.

One problem that beset the sultanate of the four confederation of Lanao was the identification of ancestral land area (Kawali) of each state (Pangampong). They were consequently defined by Datu Pascan of Unayan, Datu Popawan of Bayabao, Amiyanon Simban of Masiu and Datu Dilion of Baloi. The agreement known as Kiatathamana-an delineated the areas as: Dalama, located in the municipality of Molondo, the boundary between Bayabao and East Masiu; Sawer, Masiu municipality the boundary between East Masiu municipality and East Unayan to Madamba municipality, the boundary between West Unayan and West Masiu; and Bacayawan in Marantao municipality, the boundary between west Masiu and Bayabao. Surprisingly, there is no identified boundary between Bayabao and Baloi but the reason is that both Pangampong lineage come from the same family tree. Under the Kiangginawai (friendship) their boundary need not be established.

In 1754, the Maranaos kept on increasing their maritime strength and accelerated their attacks on the Spaniards. Leyte and Calamianes bore part of the brunt of their attacks. About nine hundred Maranaos once landed to raid for slaves in Albay and captured more than a hundred inhabitants. In Balayan, they looted everything they could lay their hands on. The Maranaos were thus greatly responsible for the abandonment of many settlements in the Visayas and the dislocation of the economic life of thousands of people. The Maranaos made these attacks since most of the native troops used against them were Visayans. The events prompted the Spaniards to devise a more elaborate and effective naval system of defense.

In 1557, the Iranuns and Maranaos accelerated their attacks on the Spaniards. There were frequent naval encounters between them and the Spaniards. In some of them, according to reports, thousands have perished.

In a span of four years, the Maranao raids for slaves on Visayas reduced the number of tributes to the Spanish government by at least 100,000. For example, figures showed that the district of Panay, it paid 1,500 tributes in 1750. By the year 1757 there only 500 tributes paid. In Romblon, the number of tributes went down from 1370 to 995, while in Kalibu (Capiz) it decreased from 1,164 to 549. Many coastal towns were totally destroyed and the Visayan population was reduced considerably. In 1759, Datu Aber Palawan and his men attacked the Spanish squadron in the northern part of Mindanao. He was martyred and buried in Radapan, Lanao (now Tarapan, Linamon, Lanao del Norte).

General Valeriano Weyler, the Spanish Governor General, decided to deal with the Maranaos in 1889. He ordered his troops to land in Malabang (in Lanao) to conquer the unconquered Maranaos. He had 1,242 soldiers in two columns. The first column started from Malabang while the second column started from Iligan. (This two-pronged attack on Maranao territory from the northern and western parts of Mindanao was a reminiscent of the 1639 campaign against the Maranaos). After a few bloody clashes, Marawi was occupied on August 19, 1889, but not without encountering strong resistance from the Maranaos led by Datu Amai Pakpak. In September 1891, Weyler finally terminated his campaign without actually conquering the Maranaos. On May 15, 1892, Pablo Pastel drafted the blue print for the temporal and spiritual conquest of the Sultanates in Philippines for the gradual reduction of the political and other powers of the Sultans, Datus, Shariffs and Panditas in such a way that they would all eventually become powerless. The Spaniards considered them as the primary obstacle impeding the rapid progress of the degraded race in its march to civilization. On June 5, 1892, the Datus of Lanao cooperated in the fortification of the section around Agus River for their mutual defense. In February 1895, systematic Maranao attacks on the Spanish forts began. As a result, the Spanish invaders launched another Spanish expedition on March 10 of the same year to attack and capture Marawi, once and for all. The march to Marawi commenced. The Spaniards found themselves faced by strong cotta under the command of the same Amai Pakpak. The Maranao warriors fought with equal bravery but lost the war with the martyrdom of Datu Akader Amai Papak, his son, 23 datus and 150 Maranao warriors. The Spaniards lost 194 men. About 3,000 Spanish troops, and countless volunteer from Zamboaga, Misamis and Sibugay were involved. This did not stop the Maranaos to continue fighting. The Spanish garrison in Marawi was in a state of siege. Sporadic attacks on the garrison and ambushes became the order of the day. The Maranaos around the lake continued their resistance against the Spaniards even after gunboats were brought to Lake Lanao to launch a campaign against the communities around it. Maranao efforts to wrest the area from the Spanish however proved fruitless as the Spanish held on to their conquered territory until they eventually withdrew, but only after their defeat to the Americans in the Spanish-American War on which commenced on May 1, 1898.

[edit] The American Regime and the Commonwealth

In 1899, the Sultans themselves led their people in fighting both the Spaniards and later, the Americans. They all ended as martyrs along with their families and warriors. In 1889, the Americans landed in Malabang (Lanao) and occupied the Spanish camp without much fanfare and named it Camp Concuera. Two years later, the Americans proceeded to the lake area but were met by Maranao warriors in Upper Bayang: Amai Barang, Mamarinta, Pitiilan, Sultan of Bayang and 300 warriors clashed with the Americans in a fierce battle. The Sultan and his men were crushed. The Sultan of Bayang perished but Captain Vicar also died. (The American camp in Upper Bayang was named after him — Camp Vicar, Lanao). In Tugaya (Lanao), Datu Saruang and many others also died fighting against the American forces coming to their place. (upload the picture of pershing and the NY Times clip, justice cayetano) During the Commonwealth regime, Amai Manabilang of Marawi challenged the authority of Justice Cayetano Arellano, of the Philippine Supreme Court, in enforcing the government laws to the Maranaos. He led a campaign that Mindanao should be separated from the Philippines. The policy of attraction of the Americans in Lanao under General Pershing offered empty promises to the Maranaos who felt that the government deprived them with the continued exercise of their traditional and cultural practices and interference to their religion, customs and traditions.

(add a separate article about Dansalan Declaration, upload a photo of Torogan-venue of DD signing)

On March 18, 1935, one hundred twenty Datus of Lanao, with thirty Sultans signed a strongly worded letter, popularly known as “Dansalan Declaration” to U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and the United States Congress asking them that the Filipinos should be granted independence and the Moro Province should also be given their own independence or better left under American rule until such time that they were prepared to grant their independence to be known as Bangsamoro.

[edit] The Sultanates of Lanao at Present and the Mindanao Problem

The Sultanates of Lanao and the entire Sultanates in Mindanao, Philippines at present have legally been unrecognized and practically reduced to non-entities by a provision in the Philippines Constitution (Article ___, Section—-) prohibiting the granting of a title of nobility to a Filipino citizen. It was the responsibility of the sultans not only to defend their people and communities but also their religion. Among the Muslims in Mindanao, there is no way one can separate the sultanate from their culture and tradition.

The Royal Sultanate could play a very important role especially because by accepted tradition, constituents respect and value Sultanate authority. For example, in the Preservation of Social Order.

  • When there is no source of power except the Sultan, the community is stable. The Sultan has influence and command to impose and execute the highly respected Taritib and Ijma.
  • When a dispute happens and the Sultan is not personally available to settle it, he can simply send his Tobao (scarf or headdress) through his emissary and it would be enough to make the parties stay “in suspended animation” and wait until he arrives to settle their dispute.
  • The Sultan has the power to ask anyone within his territory to come for questioning, for punishment if he committed an offense or for anything that is for the interest of his people. He only needs to beat his gong and it is enough for the people to come him.
  • When a buffalo is stolen by a person from another area, it becomes his duty to recover and restore it to the owner.
  • When conflicts between Sultanates occur, it was the duty of another Sultan to come and talk to them for peaceful settlement. The common practice used by the Sultan in settling Ridos (feuds) even until now is tracing the family lineage of the conflicting parties with the ultimate end that both parties will realize that they are relatives either by affinity or by consanguinity. Kambabatabata-a (blood relations) Kapamagongowa (friendship) Kapamagadata (respect), and other relationships of the forefathers are being recalled. In most cases, disputes are resolved with tears flowing from the persons witnessing or present in the scene.

[edit] The 16 Ruling Royal Sultanates in Lanao

The original number of the ruling Royal Sultans of Lanao was only fifteen (15). It is now increased to sixteen (16) with the creation of Sultan a Domalondong sa Butig in Pangampong an Unayan (Principality of Unayan). Hence, it was recently renamed as 16 “Panoroganans of Lanao”. A “Pangampong” is a principality where the head is addressed as His Royal Highness (HRH).[1][2]

The Panoroganans are the ones entitled to approve or disapprove the Taritib, Ijmas and Adats in their respective Pangampong. This gave them the title as “His Royal Highness” or now localized as “Panoroganans”. They also created the 28 “Piakambaya ko Taritib” (ruled by a Sultan but not Royal Sultan) that is seemingly similar to a legislative council or body that formulates the Taritib and Ijma which are distributed by pangampong.

The places under each of the “Pat a Pangmpong a Ranao” (Four Principalities of Lanao) are:

  • Pangampong a Unayan covers the south of Lake Lanao strictly from Buldon, Barira, Matanog, Parang of Shariff Kabunsuan province and the long coastal area parallel to Illana Bay going to northern up to Zamboaga-Lanao border. In Lanao del Sur, it includes Butiq, Sultan Dumalondong, Lumayanague, Lumbatan, Bayang, Tubaran, Binidayan, Marogong, Ganassi, Pualas, Madamba, Calanogas, Kapatangan, Balabagan and Malabang. In Lanao del Norte, it includes Kormatan, Lala and Tubod.
  • Pangampong a Masiu covers the municipalities of Molondo, Taraka, Tamparan, Masiu, Wato-Balindong, Tugaya, Bacolod Kalawi, Madalum n Madamba.
  • Pangampong a Bayabao is presently composed of the Municipalities of Ditsaan Ramain, Bubong, Buadipusa-Buntong, Kapai, Marantao, Saguiran, Maguing, Bumbaran, Wao, Lumba-Bayabao, Poona-Bayabao, Piagapo in Lanao del Sur and the city of Marawi.
  • Pangampong a Baloi consists of the municipalities of Pantar, Tangoloan I, Kapai, Baloi, Pantao Ragat, Poona Piagapo, Tangkal, Magsaysay, Kauswagan, Linamon, Bacolod, Maigo and Kolambogan in Lanao del Norte and Iligan City.

[edit] The Sixteen Royal Houses of Lanao

UNAYAN:

  • The Royal House of Butig
  • The Royal House of Pagayawan
  • The Royal House of Bayang
  • The Royal House of Dumalondong

MASIU:

  • The Royal House of Masiu
  • The Royal House of Datu a Cabugatan

POONA-BAYABAO:

  • The Royal House of Bansayan
  • The Royal House of Rogan
  • The Royal House of Taporog

LUMBA-BAYABAO:

  • The Royal House of Minitupad
  • The Royal House of Borocot
  • The Royal House of Bacolod
  • The Royal House of Maribo

MALA-BAYABAO:

  • The Royal House of Ramain
  • The Royal House of Ditsaan

BALOI:

  • The Royal House of Baloi

Hello world!

Welcome to WordPress.com. After you read this, you should delete and write your own post, with a new title above. Or hit Add New on the left (of the admin dashboard) to start a fresh post.

Here are some suggestions for your first post.

  1. You can find new ideas for what to blog about by reading the Daily Post.
  2. Add PressThis to your browser. It creates a new blog post for you about any interesting  page you read on the web.
  3. Make some changes to this page, and then hit preview on the right. You can always preview any post or edit it before you share it to the world.